The earth’s surface is 71% water. But the vast majority of this water is too salty to be suitable for drinking, growing crops, or most industrial purposes. Just 3% of this water is fresh. The rest is locked up in glaciers, polar ice caps, and soil. In addition, much of it is polluted and unavailable.

Drinking water

We don’t always know exactly where our drinking water comes from. There are many different factors that can affect the quality of our water. Some of these factors are natural, while others are the result of human activity. Fortunately, there are ways to find out exactly where your water comes from and what you can do to improve the quality of the water you drink.

Generally, our drinking water comes from either surface water or groundwater. Surface water is collected from bodies of water like lakes and streams, and groundwater comes from less defined areas of rock called aquifers. These water sources are collected using pumps or gravity, then pumped to drinking water treatment facilities.

Surface water

Most of our water supply comes from surface water, which is a type of water that is not buried under the ground. Although it may be beautiful and clean, most of this water is not suitable for human consumption. For example, water that falls on the ground picks up small particles of dust and gases. It also picks up fine soil particles and dissolved minerals. It may even acquire a taste or colour from decaying vegetation and organic material in bogs.

Water comes from several sources: surface water in the ocean, lakes, rivers, and streams. Water is drawn from these sources for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Approximately seventy-four percent of water used in the United States comes from surface water, and the remainder comes from groundwater sources.

Fluoridated water

While there are some public water utilities that fluoridate their water, most of them do not. Some of these utilities are Aberdeen-Pate Water Corporation, Crawford County Water Company, Everton Water Corporation, Jennings Water Inc., and L&M Regional Utility. In Indiana, there are almost 300 public water systems, including 33 rural schools. In Indiana, approximately 4.3 million people receive optimally fluoridated water.

Fluoridated water is used for various purposes. Fluoride is recommended by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services as a tool to improve the health of the population. In the United States, the recommended level of fluoride is 0.7 parts per million. This range can vary depending on the climate and average temperature of the region. In Europe, fluoridated water is also provided to about 12 million people, which includes Great Britain, Ireland, Spain, and many other countries.


Evaporation is a process by which water is removed from the environment and converted to vapor. The process is primarily influenced by energy. Shortwave radiation from the sun is a common source of energy for evaporation. When water is exposed to this energy, the quickest molecules break free and move into the air as water vapor. This process occurs many times per second over the water’s surface.

Water evaporates due to two main processes. First, it is heated by the sun, which causes the molecules in the water to move faster. These molecules become water vapor and spend about 10 days floating in the air. As the vapor rises into the atmosphere, it cools and condenses into larger droplets. The larger droplets then gather together to form clouds, which contain a lot of water. The water is then released from the clouds as rain or snow.

Treatment systems

There are a variety of different water treatment systems available for our homes. Each system has different advantages and disadvantages. The most important thing to look for in a water treatment system is the quality of water. A simple observation can show if there is odor or bacteria present in the water, while a laboratory test can identify the presence of harmful substances and contaminants. A water treatment system can resolve many problems and improve the quality of water within our homes.

Depending on the level of contamination, a single device may not be able to remove all contaminants. For this reason, combining two or more treatment units may be necessary. Point-of-use water treatment systems are designed to remove contaminants from water as it enters the home and is then used for drinking and cooking. These systems are available as pour-through pitchers, faucet filters, and units attached to sinks.